Common throughout northern, central and eastern Australia. The species is found in Indonesia, New Guinea, New Caledonia and New Zealand. New Caledonian and New Zealand populations have been formed from birds that have flown there from Australia.
Inhabits marshes, mudflats, beaches, grasslands and urban areas. Black-shouldered Lapwings feed on insects and their larvae, and earthworms. Most food is obtained from just below the surface of the ground, but some may also be taken above the surface.
Birds are most often observed feeding alone, in pairs or in small groups. The species will vigorously defend its nesting site. This is particularly the case after the chicks have hatched when adults will dive on intruders, or act as though they have a broken wing in an attempt to lure the intruder away.
Atlas of Living Australia at Vanellus miles novaehollandiae Accessed 29 July 2020.
Birdlife Australia at http://birdlife.org.au/bird-profile/Masked-Lapwing Accessed 27 July 2020.